Autor: MárioJDS Santos


Artigo | Sadler, M.; Santos, M. J.; Ruiz-Berdún, D.; Rojas, G. L.; Skoko, E.; Gillen, P.; Clausen, J. A. (2016); Moving beyond disrespect and abuse: addressing the structural dimensions of obstetric violence, Reproductive Health Matters, Vol.24, Issue 47


Resumo: During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despite research and policy-making to address these problems, changing childbirth practices has proved to be difficult. We argue that the excessive rates of medical interventions and disrespect towards women during childbirth should be analysed as a consequence of structural violence, and that the concept of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices.


Consultar: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.rhm.2016.04.002

Autor: MárioJDS Santos


Artigo| Santos, M., Augusto, A. (2016), ‘Se estava tudo bem, porque é que eu havia de ir a uma obstetra?’: identidade, risco e consumo de tecnologia médica no parto domiciliar em Portugal, Sociologia, Problemas e Práticas, 82.


Resumo: O parto domiciliar contemporâneo é um fenómeno raro, pouco visível e, enquanto terreno empírico, é pouco explorado. Partindo de entrevistas a mulheres e casais que experienciaram um parto em casa planeado, o artigo pretende fornecer um primeiro retrato sociológico do fenómeno em Portugal. Este surge não como um retorno ao tradicional ou uma procura de uma experiência mística, mas antes como um acontecimento físico concreto, grandemente enformado por conhecimento científico e médico, que se inscreve numa procura de coerência identitária. Emergiram diversas perceções de risco social e de risco médico, tornando-se visível um consumo reflexivo de tecnologias médicas modelado por essas mesmas perceções. Ainda que destitua algum do protagonismo da medicina na gravidez e no parto, de facto não pode dizer-se que se trate de um fenómeno de desmedicalização.


Autor: Mário JDS Santos


Capítulo de livro| Clausen, J., Santos, M. (2017), Capturing the complexity of practice as an insider: in-labour ethnography, in Church, Sarah et al. (eds.), New Thinking on Improving Maternity Care: International Perspectives, London: Pinter & Martin Ltd.


Autor: Mário JDS Santos


Artigo| Santos, M. (2017), Where the thread of home births never broke – an interview with Susanne Houd, Women and Birth, Vol.30, Issue 2


Resumo: Background The option of a planned home birth defies medical and social normativity across countries. In Denmark, despite the dramatic decline in the home birth rates between 1960 and 1980, the right to choose the place of birth was preserved. Little has been produced documenting this process. Aim To present and discuss Susanne Houd’s reflection on the history and social dynamics of home birth in Denmark, based in an in-depth interview. Methods This paper is part of wider Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM), in which this interview was framed as oral history. The whole interview transcript is presented, keeping the highest level of detail. Findings In Susanne Houd’s testimony, four factors were highlighted as contributing to the decline in the rate of home births from the 1960s to the 1970s: new maternity hospitals; the development of obstetrics as a research-based discipline; the compliance of midwives; and a shift in women’s preference, favouring hospital birth. The development of the Danish home birth models was described by Susanne Houd in regard to the processes associated with the medicalisation of childbirth, the role of consumers, and the changing professional dynamics of midwifery. Conclusion An untold history of home birth in Denmark was documented in this testimony. The Danish childbirth hospitalisation process was presented as the result of a complex interaction of factors. Susanne Houd’s reflections reveal how the concerted action of consumers and midwives, framed as a system-challenging praxis, was the cornerstone for the sustainability of home birth models in Denmark.


Consultar: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1871519216301159

Autor: Mario JSD Santos


Artigo | Neves, D. M.; Santos, M. (2018), Babies born better: o uso do software MaxQDA na análise preliminar das respostas portuguesas à secção qualitativa do inquérito, Revista de Pesquisa Qualitativa, Vol.6, n.º10.


Resumo: A saúde materna envolve um vasto conjunto de conhecimentos e práticas que visam não só a promoção da saúde na gravidez e parto mas também uma experiência que seja entendida como positiva pelas mulheres. O inquérito Babies Born Better tem como objetivo informar o debate público sobre a qualidade dos cuidados de saúde, partindo do discurso das mulheres. Baseado na componente qualitativa do inquérito, este artigo consiste num ensaio de recurso ao MaxQDA para a análise das respostas portuguesas. A utilização deste software revelou ser útil à mediação entre os dados e a análise, facilitando a sistematização da informação. A análise veio salientar a importância da relação entre as mulheres e os profissionais de saúde, enquanto fator estruturante das experiências de parto.


Consultar: https://editora.sepq.org.br/index.php/rpq/article/view/210

Autor: Mario JDS Santos


Artigo| Santos, M. (2018), Can the unequal access to home birth be framed as a source of inequalities? A comparison between Portugal and Denmark, Portuguese Journal of Social Science


Resumo: Planned home births happen across Europe, but there are countries and formal limitations can be found by This article draws upon a short research project conducted in Denmark in March 2014, which aimed to explore the organization of home birth in Denmark and to compare it to the Portuguese case. Private home births, in Portugal, and publicly funded home births, in Denmark, show interesting similarities when looking at the individual experience of choosing and planning a birth at home. However, through this comparative analysis, I argue that the limitations imposed around the option of home birth in Portugal raise important inequalities between women and families planning to give birth at home and those planning a hospital birth. The success:fa models found in Denmark can potentially serve as grounds for a broader discussion and as a trigger for change in Portuguese policies, to promote ethical and evidence based practices among professionals, and the improvement in perinatal health outcomes for families who experience planned home births.


Consultar: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/intellect/pjss/2018/00000017/00000003/art00005

Autor: Mário JDS Santos


Artigo| Santos, M. (2019), Augusto, A.; Clausen, J. A., Shabot, S. C. (2019) Essentialism as a form of resistance: an ethnography of gender dynamics in contemporary home births, Journal of Gender Studies, vol.28, Issue 8


Resumo: Feminist scholars have criticised the essentialist construction of femininity associated with ‘natural’ childbirth movements. Along these debates, planned midwife-attended home births stand as the typical representation of this counterculture. In this article, we present data from a multi-sited ethnography on Portuguese home births where we analyse how gender ideologies are reproduced and operationalised by families and home birth professionals. Our findings illustrate how home birth care and associated practices are configuring apparently contradicting gender ideologies. Essentialist perspectives, which conceive birth as an opportunity to reconnect with women’s oppressed femininity, coexist with non-binary conceptions of gender, where masculinity and femininity are regarded as fluid forms of energy that everyone has in different degrees, and where men are potentially welcomed in the birth setting, either as fathers or as professionals. Given the androcentric references of modern obstetrics and the marginal position of home birth, we argue that essentialism was constructed as a form of resistance.


Autor: Mário JDS Santos


Capítulo de livro (e-book)| Santos, M. (2019). Os cuidados de saúde materna na perspetiva das utilizadoras: Conclusões do Babies Born Better Portugal. In D. M. Neves, M. Santos, & S. Pintassilgo (Eds.), Nascimento e outros debates: Género, parentalidade e criação (pp. 65–71). Lisboa: CIES-IUL.


Resumo: O inquérito Babies Born Better é um projeto de investigação que pretende aferir da qualidade dos cuidados de saúde materna, privilegiando a experiência subjetiva das mulheres e a sua própria descrição dessa experiência. A análise dos resultados deste inquérito vem revelar que, para a grande maioria das mulheres, a experiência do parto é fortemente condicionada pela prestação dos profissionais de saúde e pelas suas competências relacionais, podendo influenciar positiva ou negativamente esta experiência. Tendo em conta as diferenças quanto a locais de parto, podemos perceber que não só a experiência subjetiva das mulheres é distinta, como a própria forma como estas experiências são reportadas parece revelar diferenças interessantes, tornando visíveis estratégias narrativas específicas para cada local – hospital publico, hospital privado e domicílio


Consultar: https://repositorio.iscte-iul.pt/handle/10071/20486

Autor: Mário JDS Santos


Artigo | Barata, Catarina, Dulce Morgado Neves and Mário JDS Santos (2020) “COVID- 19 Containment Measures, Perinatal Experiences, and the Fight for Childbirth Rights in Portugal.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly Rapid Response Blog Series


Resumo: In Portugal, as in many other countries, the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the highly medicalized, interventionist, and disrespectful manner in which facility-based births were happening before the outbreak. In line with nationwide containment measures adopted to prevent the spread of the disease – particularly within healthcare institutions – several measures and procedures were readily implemented in maternal and newborn care, impacting women’s perinatal experiences and those of their families. After the implementation of these measure self-organized groups of citizens joined civil society organizations in voicing concerns over the multiple limitations on women’s rights in obstetric care services, such as birth companion prohibition, as well as in devising strategies to demand the reinstatement of those rights.


Consultar: https://medanthroquarterly.org/rapid-response/2020/08/covid-19-containment- measures-perinatal-experiences-and-the-fight-for/~

Autor: Mário JDS Santos


Artigo| Delaunay, C.; Augusto, A.; Santos, M. (2020), Invisible vulnerabilities: ethical, practical and methodological dilemmas in conducting qualitative research on the interaction with IVF embryos, Societies, 10(1), 7.


Resumo: The burden of deciding the fate of the supernumerary human embryo created in vitro in the context of Assisted Reproductive Technologies rests on the beneficiary couples or individuals who conceived the parental project. The beneficiaries must also take on the responsibility of choosing whether to donate surplus embryos either to others or to scientific research, or to request their destruction. Vulnerable beings, weakened from the point of view of their identity (facing the social stigma still associated with some circumstances such as being infertile, lesbian or a single mother), are required to have skills such as reflexivity and autonomy in dramatic situations that concern their relationship with their own reproductive body. Given the urgency of this issue at the socio-anthropological level, we are conducting ethnographic research aimed at analysing how specialists and lay people objectivate, evaluate and circulate different conceptions of the human embryo in vitro. Based on our research experience within this ongoing project, we intend to discuss some ethical, practical and methodological concerns for the researcher in accessing the field and conducting fieldwork. We take into account the fact that this research is focused on sensitive topics and on individuals who can be considered people in vulnerable situations. View Full-Text Keywords: human embryo in vitro; infertility; vulnerability


Consultar: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4698/10/1/7